- Cash flow
Net profit before non-financial expenses and amortization. The cash flow is equal to the net profit plus amortizations less privileged dividends. It determines a company’s solvency.
- Catchment area
Geographic area from where water runs off into a specific watercourse.
- CDP Clean Development Mechanism
Under the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanisms enable industrialized nations to achieve their greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by financing clean facilities in developing countries. This provides a social, environmental, technical and economic benefit for “South
French acronym for Center for the Study of Public Opinion (Centre d’études et de connaissances sur l’opinion publique).
Sealed pit containing individual cells into which landfilled waste is deposited. A landfill comprises several cells. Each is separate hydraulically and is designed to allow for the collection of biogas and drain off the leachate. The cell is made waterproof by overlaying a textile geomembrane and draining material. The cells are surrounded by sealed dikes. The entire landfill is also surrounded by a peripheral dike. The dike height and gradient, its distance from the cells in relation to the operational boundary, and inspections are governed by regulations.
- Circular saving
Saving that maintains a balance between the economic development and preservation of resources (according to the United Nations program for the environment).
- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
A Kyoto mechanism encouraging environmental projects in developing countries. The entity that finances the project earns emission credits.
Compressed Natural Gas used as a vehicle fuel.
Carbon dioxide or carbonic gas.
- CO2 emissions
(See greenhouse gases)
Using a particular fuel, this clean technology is used to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time.
Series of operations involving the removal of waste and conveying it to a transfer station, sorting center, treatment facility or landfill.
- Collection from central containers
Collection system whereby the collection container is made freely available to the public. The municipality provides users with a network of collection points with one or more containers, more or less evenly distributed across the area being serviced and accessible to the entire population.
Product of waste composting. It can be used as an organic soil improver to improve soil structure, or as a fertilizer to feed plants.
Biological process whereby the breakdown of organic waste is sped up via the use of air to produce compost. Composting reactions release heat that sanitizes the compost, that is, removes the pathogenic agents contained in the infeed waste.
- Composting waste
Waste output at a composting plant, which is not suitable for organic recovery.
- Compressed natural gas
Mainly comprised of methane, compressed natural gas (or natural gas for vehicles) is used in gaseous form compressed to 200 bar. The combustion of natural gas does not release any sulfur oxide, lead, particles and very little nitrogen oxides. It does not release any black smoke or odors. The combustion of natural gas is slower than that of other hydrocarbons and results in a significant drop in vibrations and so lowers motor sound levels. In fact, the noise level is dropped by about four decibels, that is, halved in comparison to a diesel engine. Methane can be extracted from natural reserves or produced from biomass (green waste).
Operating contract for a public service contract between a public authority and an operator (concession company). The concession company is responsible for operation, renewal and maintenance of the facilities, and for invoicing. It also finances necessary investments (unlike service concession (affermage) contracts.
The operator's remuneration is derived from users of the service.
- CREED Centre de Recherches pour l'Environnement, l'Énergie et le Déchet (Environment, Energy and Waste Research Center).
Based in Limay, Yvelines (France), the CREED is Veolia Environnement's research center working for the company's Energy and Environmental Services. About seventy research programs are carried out each year covering all technical areas: clean vehicles and waste logistics, sorting and recycling, optimized landfilling and incineration, new treatment methods, health and environment impact studies and renewable energies. For international operations, the Creed has specific research units for the major geographic zones (Northern Europe, Australia, and soon America), which ensure the transfer locally of the results of specific research and innovation programs, when and as required. The CREED also relies on a network of external experts from universities, institutions and research organizations.